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   Киргизия Бишкек

        Увеличение - Есть - Двойной щелчок на экран
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek central Ala-Too Square

Бишкек - столица Киргизии и крупнейший город страны. Составляет особую административную единицу и является городом республиканского подчинения. Старые названия - Пишпек, Фрунзе. В отличие от южных районов республики, высокий процент населения составляют русские и русскоязычные жители. Город расположен на севере Киргизии, в Чуйской долине, у предгорьев Тянь-Шаня, в 40 км севернее Киргизского хребта, в 25 км от границы с Казахстаном.

В 1825 году, была основана кокандская крепость Пишпек, размещавшая крупнейший гарнизон в Чуйской долине. Дважды (4 сентября 1860 и 24 октября 1862) был взят русскими войсками. В ноябре 1862 крепость была разрушена, а на её месте двумя годами позже был установлен казачий пикет, затем здесь стал собираться базар. В 1868 было основано селение Пишпек. 29 апреля 1878 в связи с переводом в Пишпек центра уезда получил статус города. Герб города Пишпека был высочайше утверждён 19 марта 1908 года.

С октября 1924 года становится административным центром Кара-Киргизской автономной области. С мая 1925 — административный центр Киргизской автономной области. В 1926 переименован во Фрунзе в честь уроженца города, советского военачальника Михаила Фрунзе. С 1936 Фрунзе — столица Киргизской ССР. 1 февраля 1991 года, по решению Верховного Совета Киргизии, город переименован в Бишкек. По одной версии новое название происходит от мифического героя Бишкек-Баатыра, жившего в этой местности в XVIII веке. По другой - от созвучия слов Пишпек (первое название) и Бишкек (кухонная утварь, палка для сбивания масла).

Бишкек расположен в центре Чуйской долины, у подножья хребтов Киргизского Ала-Тоо, на высоте 760 метров над уровнем моря. Бишкек по климатическим условиям занимает крайнее южное положение в континентальной области климата умеренных широт.


The capital, Bishkek, is situated in the Chui valley in the north of the country, between the Talas valley in the west and the eastern Issyk-Kul region. It was founded in 1878 and originally was called Pishpek, which is the name of the wooden paddle with which the Kyrgyz make their kymyz (kumiss - fermented mare's milk), the national drink. Later, during the Soviet Union period, it was named Frunze after the famous Russian General Mikhail Frunze. At the time of Independence in 1991, it was renamed Bishkek. The city has been influenced by the Russians from the beginning, and actually more or less built by them. Most of the buildings you see today are built in a typically Soviet architectural style, and the trees in the parks, boulevards and alleys are watered by a system of canals built by Russians. Those boulevards and parks make this a pleasant city to live in, as they provide total shade in summer, when temperatures may reach 40 degrees Celsius (105 F), and the open canal system also helps to keep the summer bearable. Bishkek is known to be one of the greenest cities in Central Asia as a result of this planning.

Bishkek cannot claim to be one of the major cities of the world, like London, Paris or New York. It is, however, the capital city of Kyrgyzstan and does have a number of important and interesting buildings, monuments, parks, museums, galleries, theatres and other places worth seeing or visiting. This is not meant to be an exhaustive guide to the city but simply a brief introduction to the city and its history.

Situated in the central Chui valley, on an inclined plain rising from 700 to 900 meters above sea level at the foot of the Kyrgyz range of the Ala-Too mountains, which rise to a height of 4,894m, covered with juniper, pine, blue spruce, birch, poplar, elm and willow. Tulips, irises and poppies grow on the foothills, producing colorful hues in Spring. Cannabis indica grows wild in various parts. Wildlife includes deer, wild boar, ibex, snow leopard, wolves, pheasants, hawks and eagles. To the North are the Jalanash hills in Kazakhstan. The mountains protect the city from extreme heat in summer and cold in winter. The Tien Shan mountains dominate the skyline to the South. Locals often describe directions as vverh (up) or vniz - (down).

The city lies at a latitude 42°50" north - similar to that of Istanbul, Madrid and New York - and a longitude of 74°35" east - similar to that of New Delhi. The area covered by the city is about 124 square kilometres, but you can walk around the city center where most of the important sights are very closely located. With a population of about 700,000 it forms the most densely populated part of this mountainous country - major nationalities include: Kyrgyz, Russians, Dungan Chinese, Tatars, Ukranians, Uighurs, Uzbeks, and Germans, though the demographics are changing rapidly due to emigration.

Like Kyrgyzstan generally, the climate is Continental - which means hot summers and cold winters. The average annual temperature is -1°C. The atmosphere is generally dry with rainfall occurring mostly in Spring. There are an average of 322 days of sunshine per year. There are two rivers flowing through the city - The Alamedin and Ala-Archa - both tributaries of the River Chu. Also, the Grand Chu Canal flows through the city. The city is said to be the greenest in Central Asia with more trees per head of population than any other. It is a manufacturing center, as its factories produce about half of Kyrgyzstan's output, and specialise in textiles, footwear, and heavy engineering (a particular legacy of WWII, when a number of factories were transferred from European Russia to escape the approaching German Armies - The most famous being the "Lenin" works on Prospect Mira.)