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                   Австрия озеро Нойзидлер-Зе Бургенланд Podersdorf
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                  Austria Lake Neusiedl Burgenland Podersdorf

Нойзидлер-Зе - четвёртое по величине озеро Центральной Европы (после Балатона, Женевского и Боденского озёр), самое западное в Европе равнинное солончаковое озеро, популярное место отдыха, уникальный биосферный заповедник. Озеро и его окрестности включены в список мирового культурного наследия ЮНЕСКО.

Нойзидлер-Зе расположено на границе Австрии и Венгрии, около 77 % (240 из 315 км²) площади озера принадлежит австрийской федеральной земле Бургенланд, южная оконечность озера - венгерскому медье Дьёр-Мошон-Шопрон. К югу и юго-востоку от озера находятся территории национальных парков: австрийского Нойзидлерзе-Зевинкель и венгерского Фертё-Ханшаг.

Площадь озера около 315 км², глубина при этом в среднем составляет около одного метра. Озеро имеет неправильную форму, вытянуто с севера на юг. Береговая линия - изрезанная, с несколькими глубокими заливами. На озере есть несколько больших островов и множество маленьких островков и отмелей. Длина озера с севера на юг - 36 километров, ширина колеблется от 6 до 12 километров. Высота над уровнем моря - 115 метров, площадь водосбора - около 1 120 км². Нойзидлер-Зе чрезвычайно мелко, средняя глубина около метра, наибольшая - 1,8 метра. Возраст озера примерно 20 тысяч лет: оно возникло в конце ледникового периода, в результате колебаний земной коры.


Lake Neusiedl - is the second largest steppe lake in Central Europe, straddling the Austrian–Hungarian border. The lake covers 315 km², of which 240 km² is on the Austrian side and 75 km² on the Hungarian side. The lake's drainage basin has an area of about 1,120 km². From north to south, the lake is about 36 km long, and it is between 6 km and 12 km wide from east to west. On average, the lake's surface is 115.45 m above the Adriatic Sea and the lake is no more than 1.8 m deep. In the past, rainfall and aridity caused significant floods (which in 1768 enlarged the lake to its maximum documented size of 515 km²) and significant decreases in the lake's level, although frequently there seemed to be no apparent connection with the weather situation.

Stratigraphy shows that the lake bed has totally dried up at least 100 times since its formation (18,000 - 14,000 years B.C.). During recent history the lake's complete disappearance has been documented in considerable detail on several occasions, e.g. in 1740–1742, 1811–1813, and most recently in 1866, when the private diary of a local, Gottlieb Wenzel, noted that he crossed the bed of the lake on June 4 without soiling his boots. Parts of the lake bed were claimed for agriculture; wheat and turnips were being planted. However, in 1871 the lake began to return and by the spring of 1876 it had already reassumed its usual size. The last (brief and partial) vanishing took place during the summer of 1949 when the northern part of the lake bed (to the approximate latitude of Podersdorf) fell dry for a few weeks. Each time the drying-up of the lake bed caused major environmental disruptions because the humidifying and temperature buffering effect of the large water body was absent, and because the winds blew large amounts of salty dust into the surrounding villages. On earlier occasions the lake was sometimes referred to as a "swamp", suggesting a very low water level with an expansion of reeds throughout the lake bed. Two records dated to 1318 and 1324, respectively mention a "river", implying that at this time the lake might have been reduced to a central body of water running from north to south.

Today the water level is controlled by a sluice on Hungarian territory near Fertőújlak, and bilateral issues are dealt with by the Austro-Hungarian water commission which was established in 1956. However, comparatively minor fluctuations of the lake's level continue to occur. In 1965 the lake gained 100 million cubic meters of water within a single month, raising its level by 35 cm. The water level decreased to a similar extent (by 30 cm) within one year as a result of the drought of 2003. Both types of events are perfectly within the normal range, and because of the shallowness of the water can be either exacerbated or compensated by the effects of wind pressure, which can temporarily raise or reduce the local water level by as much as 75 cm. However, the lake remains sensitive to changes in its equilibrium, as recent climate change scenario simulations have shown.