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Ukraine Kerch Lenin Square

Керчь - город в Украине, в восточной части Крыма на берегу Керченского пролива, город-герой. Керчь является одним из древнейших городов мира. В настоящее время на её территории находится множество памятников истории и архитектуры, относящихся к различным эпохам и культурам. На месте современной Керчи выходцами из Милета в конце VII века до н. э. был основан Пантикапей Акрополь располагался на горе, называющейся сегодня - Митридат. В VI веке город находился под властью Римской (Византийской) Империи. В VIII веке попадает в сферу влияния Хазарского каганата. К IX-X векам хозяевами Северного Причерноморья стали славяне. С образованием Тмутараканского княжества город, названный Корчевом. В 1318 году город вошёл в состав Генуэзских колоний в Северном Причерноморье, центром которых была Каффа. В 1475 году город переходит к Османской империи. После Русско-турецкой войны по Кучук-Кайнарджийскому договору 1774 года, Керчь и крепость Ени-Кале были переданы России. Город Керчь расположен на востоке Керченского полуострова. Рельеф местности крупно- и мелкохолмистый, территорию рассекает множество балок и оврагов. Холмы высотой от 40 до 100 м (гора Митридат - 91,4 м). По территории города протекают реки Мелек-Чесме и Булганак.


Kerch - is a city on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. Kerch, founded 2600 years ago, is considered as one of the most ancient cities in Ukraine. Archeological digs at Mayak village near the city ascertained that the area had already been inhabited in 17th–15th centuries BC. Ruins of Panticapaeum. 6th century BCKerch as a city starts its history in 7th century BC, when Greek colonists from Miletus founded a city-state named Panticapaeum on Mount Mithridat near the mouth of the Melek-Chesme river. Panticapaeum subdued nearby cities and by 480 BC became a capital of the Kingdom of Bosporus. Later, during the rule of Mithradates VI Eupator, Panticapaeum for a short period of time became the capital of much more powerful and extensive Kingdom of Pontus. The city located at the intersection of trade routes between the steppe and Europe grew rapidly. The city's main exports were grain and salted fish, wine-making was also common. Panticapaeum minted its own coins. According to a few extant documents the Melek-Chesme river (small and shallow nowadays) was navigable in the Bosporan times, and sea galleys were able to enter the river. A large portion of the city's population was ethnically Scythian, later Sarmatian, as the large royal barrow at Kul-Oba testifies.

In response to strengthening of Russian military forces in Azov area, Turks built a fortress, named Yenikale near Kerch on the shore of Kerch Strait. The fortress was completed by 1706. In 1771 Imperial Russian Army invaded Crimea and approached Yenikale. The Turks decided to abandon the fortress, though reinforcements from Ottoman Empire arrived a few days before. By the Peace Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji in 1774, Kerch and Yenikale were ceded to Russia. As a result, the Turkish heritage has been almost completely wiped out. Kerch in 1839, by Ivan AivazovskyIn 1790 Russian naval forces under the command of admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait. Because of its location, from 1821 Kerch developed into an important trade and fishing port. The state museum of ancient times and a number of educational institutions were opened in the city. The ironwork factory was built in 1846 based on a huge iron ore deposit found on Kerch Peninsula. During the Crimean War the city was devastated by British forces in 1855. In the late 19th century, mechanical and cement factories were built, and tinned food and tobacco factories were established. By 1900, Kerch was connected to a railroad system, and the fairway of Kerch Strait was deepened and widened. At this time, the population had reached 33,000. After suffering a decline during the First World War and the Russian Civil War, the city resumed its growth in the late 1920s, with the expansion of various industries, iron ore and metallurgy in particular, and by 1939 its population had reached 104,500.